We offer updates from our fields to keep our partners, customers and friends up to date with our lives in the Orchards.

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:

Mountain View Fruit Promotes Rob Brett

February 12th, 2019 – Reedley, CA – Mountain View Fruit Sales in Reedley, California has promoted Rob Brett to Director of Sales and Marketing. Rob has over 18 years of experience within the stone fruit industry. His previous experience includes growing, packing, shipping, sales and marketing. “His fundamental knowledge of the commodities and his passion will be pivotal as we continue to grow our partnerships from tree to table.  We are very fortunate to have such a strong sales and marketing team and our commitment to grow our categories is our primary focus.” says Mike Thurlow owner of Mountain View Fruit Sales. 

Mountain View grows and markets stone fruit and citrus grown in the San Joaquin Valley under the Summeripe, Summertime and Rascal labels. 

Contact:

Rob Brett
rbrett@mvfruitcom

4275 Avenue 416
Reedley, CA 93654
(559) 637-9933

http://www.MVFruit.com

Rascal Mandarin & Golden Beet Salad
Serves 6
Print
Prep Time
10 min
Total Time
10 min
Prep Time
10 min
Total Time
10 min
60 calories
15 g
0 g
0 g
0 g
0 g
122 g
3 g
12 g
0 g
0 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
122g
Servings
6
Amount Per Serving
Calories 60
Calories from Fat 2
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 0g
0%
Saturated Fat 0g
0%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0mg
0%
Sodium 3mg
0%
Total Carbohydrates 15g
5%
Dietary Fiber 2g
8%
Sugars 12g
Protein 0g
Vitamin A
1%
Vitamin C
7%
Calcium
1%
Iron
1%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 6 Rascal Mandarins, cut in half the peeled with segments removed
  2. 2 large green apples, sliced
  3. 10 golden beats, peeled and sliced
  4. slivered almonds to taste
Dressing
  1. 1 bottle fat free zesty Italian dressing
  2. 1 cup Rascal Mandarin juice, about 8 mandarins
  3. 1 Tablespoon Brilliant Meyer lemon juice, about 1 lemon
  4. 1-2 Tablespoons rice vinegar
Instructions
  1. Add ingredients into a serving bowl. Add dressing to taste.
  2. Keep left over dressing in refrigerator
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calories
60
fat
0g
protein
0g
carbs
15g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE:

Mountain View Fruit Sales announces California Citrus Deal

October 5th, 2017 – Reedley, CA – Mountain View Fruit Sales announced today they are entering the California Citrus deal. Partnering with Eastside Packing they will be adding additional commodities to their premium quality and customer service based program.

“We have been working on getting into the citrus deal for many years, but finding the right growers and varieties can’t be rushed, so we are pleased to announce we will be shipping Mandarins and Lemons for the 2017 season” said Mike Thurlow owner and CEO of Mountain View Fruit Sales. “It is a natural for us as we are located right in the middle of the prime citrus growing region. We will be utilizing the same aggressive marketing platform we currently use for our premium stone fruit program.”

Kent Huckabay and Joel Gonzalez have joined the Mountain View Sales team, bringing expertise in citrus marketing to the table.  “I’ve worked with Mountain View for years on the tree fruit side, and their marketing strategy is well suited to apply to citrus” said Huckabay.  Mountain View Fruit Sales has been a leading marketer of tree fruit in California’s San Joaquin Valley for over 20 years focusing on building a brand that consistently delivers premium quality flavor to the consumer.

Contact:

Kent Huckabay
khuckabay@mvfruit.com
4275 Avenue 416
Reedley, CA 93654
(559) 391-9090

http://www.MVFruit.com

 

 

 

Summeripe Street Tacos with Peacho de Gallo
Yields 16
Print
Prep Time
2 hr
Total Time
2 hr 30 min
Prep Time
2 hr
Total Time
2 hr 30 min
176 calories
3 g
66 g
6 g
24 g
3 g
127 g
65 g
0 g
0 g
3 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
127g
Yields
16
Amount Per Serving
Calories 176
Calories from Fat 58
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 6g
10%
Saturated Fat 3g
13%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 3g
Cholesterol 66mg
22%
Sodium 65mg
3%
Total Carbohydrates 3g
1%
Dietary Fiber 0g
1%
Sugars 0g
Protein 24g
Vitamin A
1%
Vitamin C
5%
Calcium
2%
Iron
9%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 3 lbs steak, cut into thin strips (A better cut of steak will shorten marinade time)
  2. 1 bottle stout beer
  3. 1 cup lime juice, can use 1/2 cup lime and 1/2 cup lemon or orange juice
  4. 2 jalapeños, cut lengthwise into 1/4
  5. Olive oil
  6. Taco Seasoning (See notes)
  7. Corn tortillas
  8. Butter lettuce (optional)
  9. Summeripe "Peacho" de Gallo
Instructions
  1. Season meat with salt & pepper. Place into a bowl and drizzle with olive oil.
  2. Add in beer, lime juice mixture, and jalapeños. Cover and marinade in refrigerator for 2 hours to overnight.
  3. Pre-heat grill to medium high heat.
  4. Grill steaks, seasoning with taco seasoning while on the grill
  5. Remove steaks and set aside
  6. Heat corn tortillas on medium high grill, about 10-15 seconds per side
  7. Assemble Summeripe Street Tacos: place steak strips on corn tortilla (or butter lettuce) and top with Summeripe "Peacho" de Gallo
Homemade Taco Seasoning
  1. 1 tsp onion powder
  2. 1 tsp cumin
  3. 1 tsp oregano
  4. 1 tsp crushed red pepper
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calories
176
fat
6g
protein
24g
carbs
3g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/

Peachy Greek Salad

Peachy Greek Salad
Serves 8
Print
Prep Time
10 min
Total Time
10 min
Prep Time
10 min
Total Time
10 min
104 calories
15 g
13 g
4 g
4 g
2 g
314 g
188 g
11 g
0 g
1 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
314g
Servings
8
Amount Per Serving
Calories 104
Calories from Fat 31
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 4g
5%
Saturated Fat 2g
11%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 1g
Cholesterol 13mg
4%
Sodium 188mg
8%
Total Carbohydrates 15g
5%
Dietary Fiber 3g
13%
Sugars 11g
Protein 4g
Vitamin A
36%
Vitamin C
51%
Calcium
10%
Iron
5%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 3 yellow peaches, cubed & pitted
  2. 1 or 2 cucumbers, thinly sliced
  3. 12 grape or cherry tomatoes, halved
  4. 1/2 red onion, chopped
  5. 4 oz packaged crumbled feta cheese
  6. 1/4 cup seasoned rice vinegar
  7. 1/4 cup apple cider vinegar
  8. salt & pepper
Instructions
  1. Combine ingredients into a medium to large bowl
  2. Add enough vinegar to coat salad mixture
  3. Mix ingredients, adding salt & pepper to taste
Notes
  1. To take the "bite" out of the red onions, soak chopped onions in a little water or lemon juice for 5-10 minutes
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calories
104
fat
4g
protein
4g
carbs
15g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/
Summeripe Sweet Peach Toastie
Yields 2
The Summeripe Sweet Peach Toastie takes a sweet spin on the classic toastie with Summeripe yellow peaches, feta cheese, a drizzle of honey and slivered almonds.
Print
Prep Time
5 min
Cook Time
5 min
Total Time
10 min
Prep Time
5 min
Cook Time
5 min
Total Time
10 min
215 calories
38 g
8 g
5 g
6 g
2 g
127 g
106 g
13 g
0 g
3 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
127g
Yields
2
Amount Per Serving
Calories 215
Calories from Fat 40
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 5g
7%
Saturated Fat 2g
8%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 1g
Monounsaturated Fat 2g
Cholesterol 8mg
3%
Sodium 106mg
4%
Total Carbohydrates 38g
13%
Dietary Fiber 2g
10%
Sugars 13g
Protein 6g
Vitamin A
6%
Vitamin C
8%
Calcium
7%
Iron
4%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 1 Summeripe yellow peach, sliced
  2. 2 slices whole wheat or multigrain bread
  3. 2 Tablespoons crumbled feta cheese
  4. 1 Tablespoon slivered almonds
  5. drizzle of honey
Instructions
  1. Divide and sprinkle feta cheese onto bread
  2. Place the nectarine slices on top of feta cheese, sprinkle with slivered almonds and finish with a drizzle of honey
  3. Place toasties onto a baking sheet and grill on medium-high heat for a couple of minutes or until cheese starts to soften and bread is toasted
  4. Remove from grill and enjoy!
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calories
215
fat
5g
protein
6g
carbs
38g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/
Summeripe Nectarine & Avocado Toast
Serves 2
Need a delicious, nutritious, and easy snack? Try the Summeripe Nectarine & Avocado Toast! Summeripe yellow nectarines, avocados & feta cheese toasted to crunchy perfection will satisfy all of your snack cravings.
Print
Prep Time
5 min
Cook Time
5 min
Total Time
10 min
Prep Time
5 min
Cook Time
5 min
Total Time
10 min
291 calories
32 g
6 g
18 g
6 g
3 g
225 g
301 g
8 g
0 g
13 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
225g
Servings
2
Amount Per Serving
Calories 291
Calories from Fat 148
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 18g
27%
Saturated Fat 3g
17%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 2g
Monounsaturated Fat 11g
Cholesterol 6mg
2%
Sodium 301mg
13%
Total Carbohydrates 32g
11%
Dietary Fiber 9g
37%
Sugars 8g
Protein 6g
Vitamin A
9%
Vitamin C
32%
Calcium
13%
Iron
11%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 1 Summeripe yellow nectarine, sliced into 10-12 slices
  2. 2 slices plain bread (we like sourdough)
  3. 1 very ripe avocado
  4. 1/2 lime
  5. 1-2 tablespoons crumbled feta cheese
  6. Handful of baby arugula
  7. Salt & Pepper (to taste)
  8. Olive oil
Instructions
  1. Scoop out avocado into a bowl, add in lime juice, salt & pepper. Roughly mash the avocados with a fork.
  2. Split avocado mixture onto the two bread slices, add nectarine slices and crumbled feta.
  3. Place onto a baking sheet to toast in the oven or on the grill (medium high heat) until the bread is toasted and cheese is slightly soft.
  4. Remove from oven/grill and top with a drizzle of olive oil, salt, and baby arugula.
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calories
291
fat
18g
protein
6g
carbs
32g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/
Summeripe Creamy Peach Popsicles
Serves 4
Cool down this summer with these sweet and creamy peach popsicles
Print
Prep Time
10 min
Cook Time
8 hr
Total Time
8 hr 10 min
Prep Time
10 min
Cook Time
8 hr
Total Time
8 hr 10 min
150 calories
33 g
3 g
1 g
5 g
1 g
241 g
41 g
31 g
0 g
0 g
Nutrition Facts
Serving Size
241g
Servings
4
Amount Per Serving
Calories 150
Calories from Fat 10
% Daily Value *
Total Fat 1g
2%
Saturated Fat 1g
3%
Trans Fat 0g
Polyunsaturated Fat 0g
Monounsaturated Fat 0g
Cholesterol 3mg
1%
Sodium 41mg
2%
Total Carbohydrates 33g
11%
Dietary Fiber 3g
10%
Sugars 31g
Protein 5g
Vitamin A
12%
Vitamin C
19%
Calcium
12%
Iron
3%
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your Daily Values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.
Ingredients
  1. 4-5 Summeripe yellow peaches, sliced
  2. 1 cup vanilla greek yogurt
  3. 2 Tbsp Honey
Instructions
  1. Combine peach slices, yogurt, and honey into a blender and blend until smooth
  2. Pour into popsicle molds
  3. Freeze for 6-8 hours
  4. Enjoy!
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calories
150
fat
1g
protein
5g
carbs
33g
more
Mountain View Fruit https://mountainviewfruit.com/

During our three part series on the California Water Crisis we have explored California’s water infrastructure history, sources, storage and some of the problems we are facing in the Central Valley. In our third installment we explore some of the solutions, actions, and steps we are taking to mitigate the effects of drought and how our farmers are preparing for the upcoming summer season.

Regulation Changes

As explained in our previous water problem issue, current regulations & legislations have drastically reduced the amount of water sent to the Central Valley. Over 3.8 million-acre feet of water from the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project has been re-prioritized away from cities & farms for environmental projects and environmental regulatory requirements. Since 1992, farmers have been receiving on average 35% of the water that they were originally allocated. This year our farmers have been told to expect 0% of the water originally allocate to them from the projects. It is not just our farmers that are feeling the negative effects of the current water allocation. Famers in rural areas and smaller communities all over the state are in direct competition with the urban population that has an overwhelming advantage when it comes to votes.

Agriculture is a $44.7 billion dollar industry in California, providing the world with over 400 different commodities throughout the year. The current water allocation regulations, environmental regulation requirements order for California, especially the Central Valley, need to be reexamined to provide flexibility in environmental regulations. Protecting our natural ecosystem is extremely important but there should be some flexibility in the regulation that’s required for the environment, especially when are in such a state of drought.

In 2009, California adopted the California Water Action Plan through the passage of the Senate Bill 7×7. Once of the plan’s short-term goals is to reduce urban per capita water usage by at least 10% before December 31, 2015.  The plans long-terms goal will require California to reduce per capita water usage by 20% before December 31, 2020. To achieve these short and long-term goals, the Water Conservation Act promotes expanding the development of sustainable water supplies, agricultural water management plans, and efficient water management practices for agricultural water suppliers.Cities all over California are making water conservation a priority for community members and visitors. A great example of this is in a small town called Cambria on the Central Coast. Cambrians are using only recycled water for their gardens, restaurants will only serve water if requested, and public restrooms have been replaced with port-a-potties.

Investments in Infrastructure

California’s water infrastructure is working hard to provide our communities and farms with precious water. With the last major water project being completed in the 1970’s, the infrastructure is beginning to show its age. Investments in our statewide water system need to match the current state of California’s agricultural demands and growing population.

Water Infrastructure Constructed CA Population at Construction
Central Valley Project 1930’s 5.7 million
State Water Project 1960’s 15.7 million
All American Canal 1930’s 5.7 million
Colorado River Aqueduct 1941 6.9 million
Los Angeles Aqueduct 1913 2.4 million
Mokelumne Aqueduct 1929 5.7 million
San Francisco Hetch Hetchy Project 1923 3.4 million

 

CaPopChartAt the time of the last official consensus in 2010, California’s population was approximately 37.3 million people and could easily exceed 40 million by the 2020 consensus. Our water infrastructure (pipe systems and other hardware) desperately needs to be updated in order to meet the ever-growing demand.

The 2014 Water Bond, if passed in November 2014, could provide an $11.4 billion dollar general obligation bond to fund programs and projects to address California’s water supply issues. The bond would help to fund large-scale investments in infrastructure (water storage capacity, recycling facilities, levee improvements, flood control facilities, and water treatment plants) to help improve water supply reliability in dry times and help to store a greater amount of water when it is available. The bond will also provide funding for ecosystem restoration and habitat improvements. 

Forest Fire Preparation & Prevention

Hot temperatures and dry conditions also increase the likelihood of forest fires here in the California.  CAL FIRE is preparing for this summer by hiring hundreds of additional seasonal firefighters to be station all throughout the state. By taking steps to prevent wildfires and being prepared to respond quickly, our firefighters will be able to conserve our already scarce water resources. Just like smoky the bear told you, only you can prevent forest fires! For more information on how you can prevent & prepare to wild fires, visit ReadyForWildfire.org.

Summeripe Farmers: Preparing for Summer 2014

Our farmers have generation of experience and knowledge behind them. This knowledge and experience has given them the ability to adapt to tough situations and make the most of out of a limited supply of resources. Adapting to a limited water supply means figuring out how to efficiently use and conserve water. Jeff Bortolussi, a Summeripe farmer, said “Water conservation is foremost in our minds. Water used to not be a thought for us, but now it’s a very serious situation”.

Our farmers are taking advantage of technology to help them conserve water and use what water they do have as efficiently as possible. They are using instruments like Irrometers Tensiometers to figure out what will be the most effective use of water. Irrometers Tensiometers directly measure the amount of water in any given amount of soil and the physical force that is actually holding water in the soil.

The situation that California is in is terrible without question but we are actually pretty lucky here in the Reedley area. We have a few important factors that are working for us, not against us. We are allowed to drill new wells to reach water tables in the ground. Some farmers on the West side of the Central Valley are not allowed to drill for new wells. We are also extremely fortunate here on the East side that the Kings River feeds our water tables with good quality water. Our water tables are also relatively shallow, meaning that it is a not as expensive for our farmers to drill wells and pump the water out. Good quality water at shallow levels is great because ground water is currently the only source of water for our farmers.

Our landscape is also another positive factor for our farmers. The flat landscape allows our farmers to choose the most efficient irrigation method. They will often choose to use a drip irrigation system or use a technique called “flood” irrigation. Flood irrigation not only provides the trees with water it also provides an opportunity for the water tables to be replenished with the excess water the trees did not need. Drip irrigation uses drip lines to provide their trees with the exact amount of water needed. Drip is great for conservation because the trees get exactly what they need, but you can never use surface water (which takes from the water table) and it doesn’t replenish it like flood does. 

What can you do?

There are many ways you can help California conserve water, click on the following links for ideas:

http://wateruseitwisely.com/100-ways-to-conserve/

SaveOurH2O.org.

Click for Part 1: Building California’s Water Infrastructure, Storage, & Delivery Systems
Click for Part 2: Water Problems
Click for Part 3: Solutions, Preparing for Droughts & Mitigating Drought Impacts

Water Problems

Water Problems

Something as simple as water, a resource that we all consume has become one of the most complex issues facing the state of California. Water sustains life; for people, animals, plants, food, and even our businesses. What makes water so complex is that it plays a crucial part in the way we live, especially during the dry summers here in the Central Valley. We may not realize it, but everything from the clothes on our backs, to the price of electricity that runs our Air Conditioners in the summer heat, depends on our access to water. California is facing challenges because we are uncertain of how long our valuable water resources will sustain the demand and usage of the water that we all need. California has faced water issues before and we know that these problems are solvable. In order to solve the issues, we must first take a look and understand the problem in front of us.

Drought

A “Drought” is a weather related phenomena that can be tricky to define. A drought does not have a set of easily identifiable and straightforward terms or features like wind speed for hurricanes and tornadoes. While drought is defined as a “prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation; a shortage of water resulting from this” The features and effects of a Drought vary throughout the world. For example, what is considered a drought in Bali (6 days without rain) would not be considered a drought in Libya (annual rainfall is less than 7 inches). Over the last three years, the state of California, and the Central Valley have fallen short on rainfall and snowpack. Our average annual rainfall for the Reedley area is 11.50 inches. The total rainfall for last November through March (our wettest time of the year) was only 6.31 inches. This puts is at 3 inches short of the average during those months. As of last week, the final snow survey revealed that we had 18% of average for May 1st. This snow runoff provides a third of the water for farmland and cities. On top of an extremely dry winter, 47.5% of all water caught in our reservoirs is sent through rivers and streams to the ocean to meet state and federal environmental requirements.

Some may blame climate change, some global warming, while others claim our dry spell is due to the “Ridiculously Resilient Ridge” (a massive zone of high pressure in the atmosphere off the West Coast that acts like a brick wall, blocking Pacific winter storms from hitting California then deflecting the storms to Alaska and British Columbia). But the truth is, we don’t know the exact reason why California has experienced such dry winters. Just like the exact cause of our water shortage, we cannot accurately predict what next year will bring us. We do know that something has to be done to prepare for dry spells. The storage we have now was designed to prepare for these dry spells, and carry California’s cities and farms through times of drought.

Storage & Infrastructure

The storage facilities that we have in California are some of the best in the world. We have the infrastructure, designed over 100 years ago, to send water from Northern California all the way to Los Angeles. Two-thirds of California’s rainfall happens in the north, while two-thirds of the population and economy is in the south. We already have large reservoirs for most of the streams and rivers flowing in California. Building more of these reservoirs can contribute to solving the water shortage that we are facing but they do not solve the entire issue. The current reservoirs double as water storage, as well as flood protection for the areas surrounding them. That said they are capable of storing more water then the amount of runoff in the spring and summer.

California has one of the most impressive and intricate systems of water delivery from its reservoirs. However, part of the problem is that the infrastructure for delivering this water is quite old, and it was designed for a much smaller population. The Central Valley Project (CVP), Federally funded in 1930, is the worlds largest water storage and transport system in the world. The State Water Project (SWP) constructed some of our major reservoirs in the 1950’s and 60’s. These two Projects are both intricately connected to the Delta located near Sacramento. The Delta is the heart of our water system. All water either to the ocean, or throughout the state passes through this area. Since the completion of these two large water projects, little has been done to keep up with the demand on our water supply from California’s growing population and agricultural industry.

Regulation

A temporary pond used during the development of a new well. Growers have to be prepared when surface water isn't available.

A temporary pond used during the development of a new well. Growers have to be prepared when surface water isn’t available.

The amount of water that has been sent to the Central Valley has been cut drastically since 1992. From 1992-2009 there was a shift in priority for the use of this water. Over 3.8 million-acre feet of water from the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project has been re-prioritized away from cities & farms for environmental projects and environmental regulatory requirements. These water reductions resulted in farmers getting on average 35% of the water originally allocated to them. At the same time, they are expected to pay as if they were getting 100% of what’s allocated to them, but there is no guarantee that they will get water at all. The CVP was contracted to get 1.8 million-acre feet of water to farmers in this area. Since the steady decline in water deliveries, the Central Valley only got 630,000 acre feet in 2009.
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has played a role in the declination of water deliveries. The Delta Smelt and the juvenile Salmon population in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta became part of the decision to reduce water deliveries to farmers. As part of the ESA researchers caught 300 Delta Smelt near the pumps that deliver our water. In 2013 The CVP was reduced to 20% of its original allocation, and the SWP was reduced to 35%. In 2014 farmers are being told to expect 0% allocation of water from these projects. These regulatory requirements are unfortunately failing California’s environment and handcuffing California’s water systems – preventing our reservoirs from protecting from flood and providing much needed relief during drought.

The Positives

California farmers are some of the best in the world. Even though there are many challenges facing them, there has been much good that has come out of this extreme situation. New technology has been used to help them need less water, have more impact with less water, and reduce waste. For farmers to survive generation after generation, they must adapt, take care of their resources, and continue to improve on their practices. There are none better at caring for the land and developing technology than our group of Summeripe growers. We have seen them use Irrometers to measure the moisture in the ground, use drip irrigation, and have an overall sense of how important it is to take care of what they have. Luckily for us in the Reedley area, we have a good water table below us to get us through a time where we don’t get surface water. We are praying for a wet winter, and for policies that will benefit the urban populations as well as the farmers who love producing the best food in the world.

Click for Part 1: Building California’s Water Infrastructure, Storage, & Delivery Systems
Click for Part 2: Water Problems
Click for Part 3: Solutions, Preparing for Droughts & Mitigating Drought Impacts